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IMPORTANT FROM MEXICO.; Distracted State of the Country The Liberals Marching on the Capital Movements of Vidaurri.

Published: August 13, 1860

From the New-Orleans Picayune, Aug. 7.

The schooner Petomac, Capt. ARNET, arrived at this port this morning from Vera Cruz, which city she left on the 21st ult. She brings up, with a general Mexican mail, dispatches for the government at Washington, and special mail bags from the United States stop-of-war Savannah, Flag-officer JARVIS, the United States steam sloop-of-war Pocahontas, Capt. HAZARD, and the United States storeship Supply. Both officers and men of all these vessels are well. The city and port of Vera Cruz also continued remarkably healthy. By this arrival we have advices from the City of Mexico to the 17th ult., and from all parts of the country as late as due. At the capital, what with the late commercial failures and reverses in the field, affairs were in a more disorganized state, if possible, than ever. In particular, the inactivity of MIRAMON, who had done nothing whatever since his late disastrous flight from Guadalajara, gave great dissatisfaction to his party, and a movement for his overthrow, at the head of which was the new Spanish Minister, PACHECO, was talked of. One of the CUZVAB is mentioned as his probable successor, should PACHECO succeed. The more moderate men, however, of all parties, were talking of the return of COMONFORT.

Meanwhile, the recent proposals for a truce meet with very little favor in any quarter. Even the party in whose name the Spanish Minister made them seems to be divided in sentiment on the subject, while the other patties reject them as altogether absurd. In the meantime the Literals, following up MIRAMON, were rapidly approaching the capital. The forces of the South, under the command of ALVAREZ, were at last accounts at Cuernavaca. BEERIOZABEL was reported to be already on the road leading from Toluca to the city, while the army of the North was said to be approaching from various directions. If there was only a man of military genius and prestige at the head of them, says a letter, the capture of the city would be an easy task. So wearied out and exhausted, however, is the country by this long and disastrous civil war, that no movement of any vigor on either side was expected.

A most singular story was current in Mexico, to the effect that Mr. MATHEWS, the British Charge, was about to levy upon the private property of MIRAMON, CORONA, MUNOZ LEDO, &c., for the payment of the claims of British subjects. Another story had reached Vera Cruz that the Bishop of Guadalajara and other Church dignitaries had been seized by the Liberals on account of the “durance vile” of Gen. URAGA, and that the latter, by an exchange, would now probably be set at liberty.

A rumor was also current at Vera Cruz, just before the Potomac left, that there had been a pronunciamiento in favor of CUEVAS, before mentioned as PACHECO’s favored successor in the Government. CUEVAS was Minister of War during ZULOAGA’s Presidency. There had been considerable excitement at Vera Cruz on account of the arrival of the Spanish war-steamer Isabel II. Coupled with the report that a Spanish expedition was on the way, it at first created considerable stir. The fact, however, that she came only to receive dispatches from Senor PACHECO soon quieted affairs.

It was reported at Vera Cruz that there was great activity in the Government factories at Mexico, in the work of preparation for the third expedition against the “Heroic City.” Guns and shells innumerable are being cast. Meanwhile the fortifications of Vera Cruz are being repaired and put in the best possible state of defence, in case another descent should be made upon the city.

MIRAMON was, at last accounts, still at Lagos, not knowing whither to turn.

The Brownsville Flag comments at length on the movements of Gen. VIDAURRI, Governor of the Sates of Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, which it thinks are not very well understood. It says:

“He was elected, as most of our readers are aware, by the Congress, the people having failed to elect, although out of a vote of about 19,000, divided between several candidates, he received over 8,000. A disaffection has, however, grown up; a portion of Congress have declared against him, and are taking measures to drive him from the country.

GOV. VIDAUERI has of late been pursuing a course with respect to the specie passing through Monterey for this point, that will be regarded as a singular sort of patriotism by people on this side of the Rio Grande. The owners and consignees are told that the Governor is of opinion that the roads between Monterey and Brownsville are unsafe, that there is danger, that the conductas will be robbed if they are allowed to proceed, and in consequence of his great regard for them and their interests, he orders the funds to be securely deposited in the custom-house, assuring the unfortunate owners that as soon as the roads are safe they shall be permitted to proceed with their money.

The legal duties upon specie are 2 per cent. in the State where produced, and 4 per cent. at the point where exported. Gov. VIDAURRI, however, does not recognize the certificates of payment given in the State where the specie was produced, and collects that duty again at Monterey. Besides this, he also, by a private understanding with the State of Tamaulipas, collects the 4 per cent. export duty, which is only due at the point where the money is exported, making a total duty of 8 per cent. instead of 6. This burden, large as it is, is comparatively light when compared with the forced deposits, which of course have the effect of driving the specie that would naturally seek an outlet here to Tampico, a route both tedious and inconvenient.

It is a fact beyond the possibility of dispute that this is the natural course of trade, the gate of all Northern and Central Mexico; her importations will come here, and the vast wealth of her inexhaustible stores of river and lead must seek an outlet here, and every one who has an interest in the Rio Grande is of course anxious to see that country in a state of quiet once more. If not through motives of humanity, the commerce of the world demands that Mexican affairs should be settled upon a basis that would insure the protection of our commercial transactions with the people of that country.”

The Brownsville Flag of the 21st says:

“The goods crossing into Mexico during the month of June were valued at $195,460, upon the books of the Custom-house. The imports during the same month, consisting mainly of lead, wool and hides, amounted to $194,723. It is estimated that about one-fifth of the goods entered at the Custom-house at Point Isabel cross the river at this point, the remainder being disposed of here or sent up the river to points on this side.”

VIDAUERI is daily expected in Tamaulipas, and it is thought by some persons in Matamoros that he is connected with those K.G.C.’s, whose organization we had supposed had pretty much fizzled out. They say that armed parties of Americans of seven to twenty are frequently seen with no ostensible business, and they have come to the conclusion that they are K G.C.’s, cognizant of and connected with VIDAUERI’s movements.

The same paper has heard that MIRAMON’s sudden return to Mexico was in obedience to a “dispatch from the representatives of the English and French Governments, requesting him to hold an interview with them at the capital. It adds:

“What results this interview may bring forth, it is difficult to tell at present. It is hinted, however, that there is a probability that an attempt will be made to make the Government of Mexico a monarchical one, and put MIRAMON at its head as Emperor. There is evidently something of moment on foot; the farseeing eye of NAPOLEON III. is not closed to the advantages which he may derive from such a Government under his influence and control, and since the United States have failed to take any action on Mexican matters, the establishment of a Monarchical Government in the Southern portion of North America, under the protection of England and France, is by no means improbable.”

It would appear, however, that there were other sufficient reasons for MIRAMON’s sudden return to the capital, while affairs there, at last accounts direct, do not look much like the return of peace, even with MIRAMON Emperor.

[BY TELEGRAPH.]

NEW-ORLEANS, Friday, August 10.

LERDO TEUADA writes that the Constitutional Government has certain intelligence that the Spanish Government is fitting out an expedition to give moral support to MIRAMON’s third expedition against Vera Cruz.